Lễ hội Kate ở Pô Sah INư – Điểm nhắn của Bình Thuận – Hội Tụ Xanh

Hơn 2/3 thế kỷ trôi qua, lễ hội Katê vắng bóng trên tháp Pô Sah INư do những nguyên nhân khách quan của lịch sử, trong đó tác động xấu của hai cuộc chiến tranh là đáng kể, một phần nữa do cả nhóm tháp bị sụt lở, đổ bể do có thời gian tồn tại quá lâu (trên 1200 năm) và bị bỏ hoang hóa, cây cối bao phủ khó vào ra. Những lễ hội lớn thưa dần và vắng bóng. Hàng năm người Chăm ở các nơi chỉ lui tới một đôi lần để thực hiện các lễ nghi tôn giáo đã bị cắt gọn.

Chỉ từ khi nhóm đền tháp Pô Sah INư được trùng tu, tôn tạo lại (bắt đầu từ 1987 – 2000) thì người Chăm từ Ma Lâm, Hàm Phú, Hàm Trí lần lượt đến thăm viếng và thực hiện lễ nghi tôn giáo của mình.

Các lễ nghi hàng năm được tổ chức tại di tích Pô Sah INư như: Lễ tống ôn, lễ cầu đảo, lễ cầu mưa, lễ Rija Năgar, lễ Katê… nhưng chỉ ở mức độ nhỏ và giới hạn trong một dòng tộc, một vài dòng họ, theo đó cũng chỉ thực hiện một phần của những lễ lớn do hạn chế về tiền bạc, phương tiện đi lại và cả sự nhận thức về lễ hội. Không phải chỉ có người Chăm ở các xã miền núi của huyện Hàm Thuận Bắc, mà do có mối liên hệ từ lịch sử của quá khứ nên người Chăm từ Phú Lạc, Tuy Phong, một số ở Bắc Bình hàng năm cũng đến đôi lần để cúng tế tạ ơn ở đây.

Tất cả những lễ nghi trên cũng chỉ dừng lại ở mức độ đơn lẻ và gián đoạn. Trong những lễ nghi

 lớn như lễ hội Katê cũng chỉ thực hiện được những phần cơ bản của lễ mà không thực hiện được phần hội.

Năm này qua năm khác, người Chăm thầm mong sẽ có ngày tổ chức được một mùa lễ hội Katê thật lớn, thật đúng qui trình và ý nghĩa như gần một thế kỷ trước ông bà, tổ tiên của họ đã thực hiện.

Đáp ứng yêu cầu chính đáng đó của người dân, những năm gần đây ngành VHTT đã tiến hành khảo sát, nghiên cứu và thu thập tư liệu nằm trong sách vỡ, trong trí nhớ của người già, và sự thiết tha của Hội đồng phong tục, các vị chức sắc trong các làng Chăm, để nối lại và làm sống lại các giai đoạn, các qui trình của một lễ hội Katê để phục dựng lại với đầy đủ các giá trị văn hóa tinh thần vốn có của nó trong lịch sử. Việc làm này được đông đảo người Chăm trong và ngoài tỉnh đồng tình ủng hộ. Với ngành VHTT thì coi đây như một biểu hiện cụ thể và sống động của việc bảo tồn lưu giữ và phát huy các giá trị văn hóa phi vật thể của các dân tộc đã mai một trong quá khứ, theo tinh thần nghị quyết 5 của Trung Ương và nghị quyết 04 của tỉnh ủy Bình Thuận.

Quá trình khảo sát, nghiên cứu để chọn lọc tư liệu phục dựng, có thể gọi là kịch bản khoa học của lễ hội Katê. Nhưng không phải là việc sân khấu hóa, càng không thể cắt bỏ hay thêm bớt gì mà phải giữ gìn nguyên trạng, kể cả từng nghi thức nhỏ trong một lễ nghi, lời khấn, động tác múa lễ…

Trong đợt kỷ niệm 10 năm ngày Du lịch phát triển, UBND tỉnh, Ban tổ chức lễ hội du lịch Bình Thuận – Hội tụ xanh đã quyết định tổ chức nhiều chương trình văn hóa, nghệ thuật, lễ hội, thể thao ở thành phố Phan Thiết. Lễ hội Katê được chọn làm điểm nhấn tại khu vực chính ở tháp Pô Sah INư trong quần thể đồi lầu ông Hoàng thuộc phường Phú Hài, Thành phố Phan Thiết từ ngày 22 – 23/10/2005.

Lễ hội Katê ở Pô Sah INư năm nay là lần đầu tiên sau hơn 2/3 thế kỷ được tổ chức quy mô, hoành tráng có sự tham gia của người Chăm tại Ma Lâm, Hàm Trí, Hàm Phú. Bắt đầu bằng đoàn rước y phục từ Hàm Phú về đến dốc lầu ông Hoàng, từ đây rước vào sân bãi của tháp Pô SahNư. Y phục đặt trong các rạp dựng sẵn tại đây để chuẩn bị cho ngày hôm sau rước lên tháp, chính thức mở lễ hội Katê.

Lễ hội Katê còn được gọi là Mbang Katé với nội dung chính là một trong những lễ hội mọi người quan tâm nhất trong năm của người Chăm. Katê được tổ chức vào ngày mùng một tháng bảy Chăm lịch (khoảng tháng 10 dương lịch, năm nay đúng vào ngày 22 – 23/10/2005). Katê nhằm tưởng nhớ đến những người đã khuất, tưởng nhớ đến các vị anh hùng dân tộc (được người Chăm tôn vinh làm thần). Ở đền tháp thờ vị vua nào, người ta tổ chức lễ tưởng nhớ vị vua đó, như tháp Pô Rômê thì tưởng nhớ vua Po Rômê, ở tháp Po Klaong Girai thì tưởng nhớ vua Po Klaong Girai, ở tháp Pô Đam thờ vua Pô Đam, tại tháp Pô Sah INư ở Phan Thiết thờ và cúng tế Pô SahNư. Còn tại các đền thờ thì tưởng nhớ đến các vị vua của thời kỳ sau, như Po Nit, Po Klaong Mơhnai, Po Klaong Khul. Các vị vua này đã có công lao to lớn trong việc kiến thiết vương quốc cổ Champa xưa kia cùng với công lao hướng dẫn người Chăm làm thuỷ lợi và sản xuất nông nghiệp. Lễ Katê còn có ý nghĩa nhằm tưởng nhớ đến tổ tiên ông bà. Chỉ sau khi Katê ở các đền thờ, đền tháp tổ chức xong thì Katê ở làng mới bắt đầu.

Sau những điệu múa chào đón các thần linh là nghi thức rảy nước trong Lễ Mở cửa đền thờ do thầy Po Dhia(Sư Cả) và các thầy Paséh thực hiện, tiếp theo đó là nghi thức tắm tượng được tiến hành. Những nghi thức này xuất phát từ các tập tục bản địa vốn có nguồn gốc sâu xa là nền văn minh nông nghiệp lúa nước liên quan đến thuật cầu mưa. Y phục được Po Dhia làm lễ ban phước và trao cho Muk Pajâu (bà bóng) mặc vào tượng vua (ở Pô SahNư là bệ thờ Linga – Yoni) đặt trong tháp thờ. Sau khi tiến hành nghi thức mặc y phục, cuộc tế lễ bắt đầu. Trong khung cảnh trang nghiêm tại lòng đền tháp, tiếng của một thầy Paséh kể tiểu sử và ca tụng công đức các vị thần hòa lẫn với tiếng kèn saranai, đàn ka nhi réo rắt và tiếng trống ghi năng, trống paranưng rộn rã. Trong khi đó, ở trước thềm cửa đền thờ, các phụ nữ Chăm bày biện la liệt các lễ vật dâng cúng thần linh để cầu xin ơn lành, cầu cho gia đình một năm mới, một vụ mùa tươi tốt. Lễ vật có cả món ngọt lẫn món mặn. Những người bày lễ cúng trước đền thờ tuần tự mang trầu cau vào để thờ nhờ các thầy Paséh dâng lên thần linh. Các nghi lễ trên đền thờ được kết thúc vào buổi chiều.

Chúng ta sẽ thấy những lễ nghi chính của Katê được trình diễn như ở Tháp Pô Rômê và Pô Klaong Girai tại Ninh Thuận. Sẽ thú vị hơn khi ở Pô Sah INư ngoài những lễ nghi chính của người Chăm Bàlamôn trong Katê còn có sự xen lẫn một số lễ nghi của người Chăm Bàni. Đây là sự khác biệt ở một số nơi khác. Điều đó cũng nói lên nguồn gốc xa xưa về tôn giáo của người Chăm và ý nghĩa to lớn hơn của Katê – Pô SahNư chính là tính cộng đồng cao trong di sản văn hóa tinh thần của họ.

Trong suốt thời gian từ sáng đến chiều của ngày lên tháp, từng dòng từng dòng người tiếp tục lũ lượt tuôn về các tháp, các bà cụ già mang lễ vật đến cầu khấn, gia đình bình an, hoà thuận hoặc dâng lễ để tạ ơn thần đã đáp ứng lời cầu xin, cứu giúp mọi người. Không chỉ riêng người Chăm, mà ở các đền tháp, đền thờ còn có cả người Việt ở khu vực lân cận cũng đến tháp dâng lễ cầu xin, cúng bái. Sự có mặt của ngư dân ở ven biển Phan Thiết là không thể thiếu ở lễ hội này, đây kết quả của quá trình tiếp xúc và giao lưu văn hóa trong lịch sử của hai dân tộc.

Lễ hội Katê phản ánh sâu sắc nền văn hóa nghệ thuật truyền thống của dân tộc Chăm. Katê là cơ hội để mọi người gần gũi, gắn bó, đoàn kết, thương yêu nhau hơn trong cuộc sống, là dịp để vui chơi, giải trí sau một năm lao động miệt mài. Katê còn là môi trường sống động trong việc bảo lưu và phát triển nền văn hóa cổ truyền của dân tộc Chăm, là một biểu hiện gìn giữ bản sắc dân tộc của cộng đồng người Chăm và đã góp phần làm phong phú kho tàng văn hóa Việt Nam đa dạng và giàu bản sắc.

Ngoài sự tham gia chính của người Chăm huyện Hàm Thuận Bắc còn có người Chăm từ Bắc Bình, Tuy Phong, Phú Yên và TP. Hồ Chí Minh cùng các chương trình hoạt động văn hóa nghệ thuật khác tại khu vực tháp Pô SahNư…sẽ tôn vinh lễ hội Katê hơn và làm cho những ngày hội Bình Thuận – Hội tụ xanh thành công và mang lại nhiều niềm vui, sự phấn khởi trong người dân và khách du lịch tạo động lực cho sự phát triển du lịch bền vững

 

Theo Binhthuantoday.com

 

 

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