Palei Ram, quê hương của nhà cách mạng Ja Thak Wa

Nói đến Palei Ram, hầu hết người Chăm đều nghĩ đến thôn làng có nhiều rừng rậm. Nếu nhìn kĩ lại, Palei Ram là một khu vực khô cần sỏi đá, cây cối không thể đâm chồi nở lá. Thế thì Ram ở đây không thể có nghĩa là rừng rậm được.

Trong ngôn ngữ Chăm có hai cụm từ mà một số người Chăm thường nhầm lẫn. Ðó là từ ram hay aram xuất phát từ gia đình ngôn ngữ Ða Ðảo (Mã Lai : rimba) có nghĩa là . Còn Ram (trong Palei Ram) không có nghĩa là rừng rậm mà là đất gò, tương đương với từ ta-mbok trong ngôn ngữ Chăm. Và hôm nay, người Chăm vẫn còn dùng cụm từ Ram Ta-mbok Krâh, Ram Ta-mbok Gah để ám chỉ làng Văn Lâm. Tóm lại, Palei Ram có nghĩa là xóm gò thì đúng hơn.

Vấn đề quan trọng trong đề tài này không phải đi tìm nguồn gốc ngữ nghĩa của từ Ram mà là đi tìm vết tích của Palei Ram trong lịch sử, đi tìm những nét đặc trưng của thôn này trong tổ chức xã hội của người Chăm hôm nay.

Nói đến Panduranga-Champa, người ta thường nghĩ đến Virapura, thủ đô của tiểu vương quốc này. Nhiều nhà lịch sử học và khảo cổ học cho rằng Virapura tọa lạc tại Bal Caong không xa cho lắm Danao Panrang gần thôn Bầu Trúc. Nếu dựa trên lý thuyết này, Palei Ram nằm ngay trên địa bàn dân cư của thủ đô Virapura. Chính vì thế, Palei Ram không thể tách rời ra khỏi các biến cố chính trị hay quân sự đã từng diễn ra ở thủ đô Virapura (Bal Caong) thời trước.

Biến cố đầu tiên là trận chiến vào năm 787 giữa đoàn quân Jawa (dân tộc Ða Ðảo) và quân đội Panduranga tại thủ đô Virapura. Mặc dù không có sử liệu viết về vai trò của Palei Ram, nhưng chiến trường năm 787 không thể gạt bỏ Palei Ram ra khỏi chu vi của biến cồ này được. Và dân chúng Palei Ram cũng không thể nhắm mắt làm ngơ, trong khi quân đội Panduranga đang chiến đấu với quân xâm lược ngay trước cổng làng của mình.

Phải chờ 358 năm về sau, vấn đề Palei Ram lại xuất hiện trên bàn cờ chính trị Champa. Năm 1145, Cao Miên xua quân xâm chiếm Vijaya (Bình Ðịnh). Hoàng tử Sri Jaya Harivarman I, theo vua cha là Sri Jaya Rudravarman chạy sang miền nam để lánh nạn ở Panduranga. Nghe tin này, vua Cao Miên ra lệnh tấn công thủ đô Virapura vào năm 1158, biến cánh đồng Văn Lâm mà bia ký gọi là Kayev (nơi có tảng đá Batau Tablah) thành bãi chiến trường đẫm máu. Với sự yểm trợ của nhân dân Panduranga, Sri Jaya Rudravarman đập tan toàn diện đoàn quân viễn chinh Cao Miên. Sau ngày chiến thắng, ngài ra lệnh khắc lên tảng đá Batau Tablah (Ðá Nẻ) để ghi công ơn chiến sĩ đã hy sinh xương máu trong trận chiến này. Ngài còn phong chức cho tảng đá Batau Tablah thành Yang Batau Tablah (thần Ðá Nẻ) để dân chúng Champa tưởng nhớ, thờ phượng và giao cho Palei Ram bảo quản.

Batau Tablah là một tảng đá có bề ngang gần 3 thước 50 và bề cao gần 4 thước 75 tọa lạc một cách đồ sộ ở Palei Bal Caong, phía bắc của Palei Ram. Trên tảng đá này có khắc 17 hàng chữ bằng tiếng Chăm cổ với nét chữ có vẻ đẹp tuyệt vời mà người ta chưa từng thấy ở khu vực Panduranga. Phải công nhận rằng, Batau Tablah là một bia ký có diện tích lớn nhất ở khu vực Ðông Nam Á.

Bia ký này nội dung như sau :
Sau ngày vua cha từ trần, dân chúng Panduranga tôn vinh hoàng tử lưu vong ở tiểu vương quốc này tên là Sri Jaya Harivarman I lên làm vua Champa vào năm 1147. Nghe tin này, chính quyền Cao Miên đang chiếm giữ thủ đô Vijaya với sự yểm trợ của nguyỳ quân Champa ở miền bắc làm tay sai cho Cao Miên xuất quân rầm rộ tấn công Panduranga ở đồng bằng Caklyan (tức là Palei Caklaing, Mỹ Nghiệp) nhưng bị đẩy lui. Năm 1158, cũng đoàn quân này trở lại tấn công Virapura và biến cánh đồng Kayev (làng Văn Lâm, nơi có tảng đá Batau Tablah) thành bãi chiến trường đậm máu. Là một hoàng tử vô cùng dũng cảm (bia ký gọi là pron viryya harih), ngài đánh tan trong chốc lác đoàn quân Cao Miên và nhóm nguyỳ quân Champa miền bắc ở bãi chiến trường này. Năm 1159, Sri Jaya Harivarman I rời Panduranga với một đoàn quân hùng mạnh tiến đến miền bắc để giải phóng Vijaya khỏi ách nô lệ của Cao Miên. Sau ngày chiến thắng, ngài thống nhất hai miền nam bắc thành một quốc gia liên bang hùng mạnh và có uy quyền như thời trước.

Ngoài chiến trường năm 1158, Palei Ram còn giữ một vai trò khác trong tiến trình lịch sử của Panduranga. Ðứng trên phương diện chiến lược phòng thủ, Palei Ram đã trở thành một địa thế quân sự quan trọng hàng đầu. Vì rằng, Palei Ram nằm ngay bên lề Kraong Biuh tức là sông Lũy hay sông Thành Lũy, bắt nguồn từ Ðồng Nai, chạy qua các thôn Palei Thuen, Palao, Pabhan, Ram, Caklaing. Dọc theo hai bờ sông này, từ tháp Po Romé đến làng Văn Lâm, người ta tìm thấy có rất nhiều dấu tích đồn lũy mà vua chúa Panduranga-Champa đã xây dựng thời trước. Về thế quân sự, một khi thành lũy của Palei Ram bị phá vỡ thì quân địch tràn qua Cà Ná để tiến đến Phan Rí rất là dễ dàng. Thế thì Palei Ram đã trở thành một đồn pháo quân sự nằm ngay địa đầu của trận chiến để ngăn chặn quân xâm lược xuất phát từ mặt biển tiến quân về phía tây tức là đền Po Romé hay xuất phát từ phía bắc tràn về Phan Rí. Chính vì thế, Palei Ram phải là một thôn ấp tập trung nhiều chiến sĩ dũng cảm để đương đầu với đối phương trong suốt quá trình lịch sử đấu tranh của tiểu vương quốc Panduranga.

Nói đến Palei Ram thì người ta phải nghĩ đến Bhum Kawei, một địa danh trong tác phẩm Ariya Gleng Anak ra đời vào lúc chiến tranh giữa Ja Thak Wa và Minh Mệnh. Một số nhà viết lách cho rằng Bhum Kawei là tên một vương quốc. Tiếc rằng Bhum Kawei không phải là danh xưng của một xứ sở mà là tên của Palei Ram, phát xuất từ Kawei (hồ chứa nước) nằm ngay trong thôn này. Ðây là câu thơ nói đến Bhum Kawei :

Balan tajuh Lengka merai sumu,
klau pakar merai saong nyu, Kawei angan bhum Kawei.

Câu này có nghĩa rằng : vào tháng 7, năm Giáp Ngọ (1834) hoàng đế Minh Mệnh (Langka

Ban Biên Tập

Theo www.champaka.org

 

 

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