Chế Bồng Nga Và Họ Chế Ở Việt Nam

Chế Bồng Nga Và Họ Chế Ở Việt Nam

Ja Intan


Nhân dịp tham dự lễ Kate 2009 ở San Jose và qua Dam Nưi vua Chế Bồng Nga của Dương Chi Mai, nhắc tôi nhớ đến vị vua anh hùng vĩ đại và lỗi lạc của dân tộc Champa nhưng ít nguời biết đến những chiến công hiển hách cụ thể của ngài vào thế kỷ XIV.  Tôi may mắn đã đọc đuợc những tư liệu quý của các học giả Pháp cũng như Việt, nay tôi mạo muội phỏng dịch, lượm lặt ghi lại nhằm góp phần tìm hiểu về thân thế sự nghiệp của ngài. Nhất là sau cái chết của ngài, sự thể ra làm sao mà rất ít học giả nhắc đến như con, cháu của ngài chẳng hạn.


Trong bài tôi vẫn ghi lại nguyên vẹn tên các vị vua cũng như vùng miền không dấu theo tài liệu tiếng Pháp (và có dấu theo sự hiểu biết của tôi) vì nếu đối chiếu để ghi lại cho chính xác và rõ ràng sẽ mất nhiều thời gian. Đây cũng là điều kiện và là nền tảng cho các thế hệ trẻ sưu tầm, nghiên cứu, tiếp nối và hoàn chỉnh.


Sở dĩ trong bài tôi dùng từ “chinh phạt đối với Đại Việt” vì vùng đất Vương quốc Champa xưa kia, phía Nam trải dài từ ranh giới tỉnh Mỹ Tho đến tận Thanh Hóa miền Bắc (Lộ Bác Đức nhà Tây Hán và Mã Viện nhà Đông Hán / Trung Hoa đã đánh chiếm và sáp nhập phần đất Thanh Hoá và Nghệ An vào quận Cửu Chân). Thanh Hoá đã bị Hán hoá sau đó bị Việt hoá và dân Champa còn sống rải rác ở vùng đồng bằng Bắc Bộ.


Mã Viện, sau khi đánh tan cuộc nổi dậy của hai Bà Trưng và đã cắm cột trụ đồng phân chia ranh giới Trung Hoa và Champa, theo các nhà sử học Pháp là phía Nam sông Lam (Hà Tĩnh) nhưng cho đến nay các nhà khoa học vẫn chưa tìm thấy trụ đồng này.  Nay tôi tạm căn cứ vào ngôn ngữ nói của cư dân hiện tại từ Thanh Hóa trở vào Quảng Nam có tiếng nói mang âm trầm và nặng chứa đầy dấu ấn ngôn ngữ nói Champa.  Hơn nữa hiện nay, hai ngôi chùa ở Thanh Hoá còn tồn tại dấu ấn văn hoá Champa như chùa Báo Ân (núi An Hoạch, huyện Nghi Sơn ngày nay) có chim thần Garuda nơi bệ thờ Phật và ở các góc gian phòng thờ Phật. Còn một ngôi chùa khác (tôi đã quên tên) vẫn còn lưu giữ một tượng đá bò thần Nandin, được chạm khắc rất đẹp và tinh vi.


Sau khi Lý Thường Kiệt bình Chiêm (theo Sử sách Việt Nam), vị quan này được nhà Lý cho trấn giữ và ban phong ấp ở Thanh Hoá. Lý Thường Kiệt đã xây dựng nhiều ngôi chùa (thời nhà Lý đạo Phật rất thịnh), trong đó có nhiều ngôi chùa đã được xây dựng ngay trên nơi thờ phượng nguời dân Champa nhằm xoá sạch vết tích cũ của cư dân bản địa.


Trong suốt thời kỳ lịch sử chiến tranh giữa Đại Việt và Champa, các vua Champa luôn luôn tiến hành chinh phạt Đại Việt để thu hồi lại những vùng đất đã mất chứ không phải là cướp phá, quấy nhiễu như các sử gia Đại Việt đã viết không khách quan về Champa. Chúng ta khách quan thử nghĩ, một vương quốc Champa cường thịnh lúc bấy giờ lại đi cuớp phá, quấy nhiễu Đại Việt là một huyện nhỏ thuộc Trung Hoa chăng??? Trong khi ấy Champa có đội hải quân rất nổi tiếng, hùng mạnh và làm chủ vùng biển Đông Nam Á.


Chẳng lẽ vào thời gian trước và sau thế chiến thứ I , vương quốc Anh có đội hải quân hùng mạnh nhất thế giới cũng là đội quân cướp biển chuyên quấy phá, cướp bóc các nước khác sao???  Người Champa đã có nền văn minh lúa nước lâu đời, họ đã giỏi thuần dưỡng đuợc giống lúa cho vụ thứ hai ngoài vụ mùa chính, không cần nhiều nước và được người dân Đại Việt lúc bấy giờ đem về cấy trồng gọi là “lúa Chiêm : lúa từ Chiêm Thành”.


Ngoài ra Champa là một đất nước đuợc thiên nhiên ưu đãi về khoáng hải sản như vàng, trầm hương … nổi tiếng thế giới lúc bấy giờ.  Theo nhà sử học Ba Tư Ibn Abei Yak Kub viết vào khoảng năm 875 – 880 thì trầm hương Champa được đánh giá tốt nhất thế giới. Sách Thủy Kinh Chú của Trung Quốc viết rằng “người ta phải mua gỗ trầm hương của Champa bằng lượng vàng nặng tương đương” và sách Lương Thư Trung Quốc cũng viết rằng “ trữ lượng vàng của Champa lớn và nhiều vô số đến mức trở thành huyền thoại”.  Sách Tống thư Trung Quốc cũng viết rằng vào năm 446, thứ sử Trung Hoa tại Giao Châu là Đàn Hoa Chi đã kéo quân xâm chiếm Lâm Ấp và đã cướp đi vô số đồ thờ cúng bằng vàng từ các đền đài và nấu thành thỏi lên đến 100 ngàn cân vàng.  Vào năm 605 tướng Trung Hoa khác là Lưu Phương, sau khi xâm chiếm Lâm Ấp đã cướp đi 18 thần chủ bằng vàng từ các đền tháp Champa mang về Trung Quốc.  Vậy chúng ta khách quan thử nhận xét xem ai xâm chiếm ai và ai cướp bóc ai???


Như ai đó đã nói “Dân ta phải biết sử ta” nhưng tôi lại ước mong một điều lớn hơn nữa “dân ta phải viết sử ta “để trả lại sự thật cho lịch sử dân tộc Champa. Vì các dân tộc khác có ý viết sai lệch về sử ta nhằm tránh né sự thật, che đậy khéo léo bằng các mỹ từ hay bỏ qua các sự kiện hoặc tìm cách thêm bớt để cho logic và hoàn chỉnh. Ngoài ra họ còn khéo thêu dệt những mẩu chuyện hay huyền thoại không tốt về dân tộc khác. Ví dụ như Đại Việt xâm lược và tiêu diệt Champa thì sử gia Việt Nam viết là cuộc Nam tiến. Còn việc Trung Quốc đánh chiếm Việt Nam thì cho rằng là xâm lược. Vậy đâu là sự thật???. Trong Lịch sử giữa hai dân tộc Champa và Đại Việt còn rất nhiều chỗ ẩn khuất chưa được giải mã và phơi bày ra ánh sáng. Hiện nay số tư liệu đó đang nằm trong kho tư liệu ở Việt Nam, Trung Quốc và Pháp.


Truớc khi viết về nhà vua vĩ đại Chế Bồng Nga, tôi tạm sơ lược vài dữ kiện xuất thân và chiến công của ngài qua những cuộc chinh phạt Đại Việt.  Theo biên niên sử giòng họ CHẾ ở An Tịnh (Nghệ An ngày nay) như sau :


***Vào năm 1306 vua Champa là Che Man (Chế Mân) đã cưới Huyền Trân công chúa, em gái vua Traàn Anh Toân (Traàn Anh Toân: 1293-1314) vaø đã nhường 2 châu Ô và LÝ cho Đại Việt. Vua Trần Anh Tôn đã đổi tên hai châu này là Thuan Chau và Hoa Chau (Thuận Châu và Hóa Châu), ngày nay là Thừa Thiên. Tuy nhiên người Champa ở 2 châu Ô và LÝ không chịu nổi sự thống trị của Đại Việt.


***Vào năm 1312, vua Anh Tôn tiến hành cuộc xâm lược Champa, vua Champa bấy giờ là Che Chi (Chế Chí) bị bắt đưa về Thăng Long. Em vua Chế Chí là Che Da (Chế Đa) lên ngôi vua Champa cai trị đất nước.

***Nhân cơ hội vua Tran Minh Ton (Trần Minh Tôn /1314 – 1329) mới lên ngôi, vua Champa là Che Nang (Chế Năng) đem quân sang đánh Đại Việt nhằm thu hồi lại 2 châu Ô và LÝ. Nhưng thất bại vua Chế Năng phải lánh nạn sang Java (1318).  Vua Minh Tôn bổ nhiệm phó vương Champa, nguời thống lĩnh quân đội, là Che A Nan (Chế A Nan) lên làm vua. Vua Chế A Nan băng hà (1342), nguời con rể là Tra Hoa Bo De (Trà Hoa Bồ Đề) tiếm ngôi lên làm vua. Con vua Chế A Nan là Che Mo (Chế Mỗ) đã lánh nạn sang Đại Việt và cầu xin sự giúp đỡ để chống lại việc tiếm ngôi ấy. Vua Tran Du Ton (Trần Dụ Tôn /1341 – 1369) đã thực hiện cuộc viễn chinh sang Champa và đưa Chế Mỗ lên ngôi vua.  Sau khi vua Chế Mỗ băng hà, con là Che Bong Nga (Chế Bồng Nga) lên ngôi vua, ngài là kẻ thù khủng khiếp nhất mà người Đại Việt chưa bao giờ biết đến qua những cuộc chinh phạt miền Bắc Trung Bộ (Nord – Annam) và Bắc Bộ (Tonkin) từ những năm 1361 đến 1390.


Tổng cộng trong lịch sử chiến tranh giữa Champa và Đại Việt, Champa đã từng đưa quân chinh phạt Đại Việt tới 43 lần. Trong đó chỉ tính riêng vua Chế Bồng Nga đã tiến hành chinh phạt Đại Việt đến 12 lần, trong đó có 3 lần đánh vào tận kinh đô Thăng Long.


Đoạn này có ý nhấn mạnh và là điều quan trọng để ghi nhớ bởi vì nó là chìa khóa bí mật của việc định cư và hình thành An Tịnh (huyện Nam Đàn / Nghệ An ngày nay) của 2 hoàng tử Chăm là Che Ma No (Chế Ma Nô) và Che Son No (Chế Sơn Nô) vào cuối thế kỷ XIV như sau :


Bắt đầu từ năm 1361, vua Champa Chế Bồng Nga khởi đầu với những trận chiến đầy thắng lợi liên tiếp hầu như không ngừng cho đến cái chết của ngài vào năm 1390.


Học giả Hippolyte Le Breton chỉ ghi lại những chiến công vang dội nhất và đặc biệt là nơi xảy ra ở An Tịnh.  Chế Bồng Nga chinh phạt miền Bắc Trung Bộ và Bắc Bộ vào năm 1371 bằng đường biển.  Vào năm 1377, quân Đại Việt đã chuẩn bị một cuộc tấn công trả đũa Champa mà kết quả rất thảm hại là vua Đại Việt, Tran Due Ton (Trần Duệ Tôn) đã bị xử trảm tại kinh đô Vijaya và hoàng tử Huc (Húc) phải bị cầm tù.  Cùng năm ấy, Chế Bồng Nga đã tiến hành cuộc chinh phạt miền Bắc Trung Bộ và Bắc Bộ bằng đường biển. Sau khi thắng lợi nhà vua đã gã một công chúa Champa cho hoàng tử Húc.  Vào năm 1378, vua Chế Bồng Nga đã đưa hoàng tử Húc vào An Tịnh và đưa lên ngôi vua với niên hiệu là Ngu Cau Vuong (Ngư Cầu Vương).


Vào năm 1380, vua Chế Bồng Nga trở lại An Tịnh, xuất quân chinh phạt Thanh Hóa và tiến thẳng ra Thăng Long.  Năm 1382, một lần nữa vua Chế Bồng Nga lại chinh phạt vùng Thanh Hóa nhưng đã bị đánh bại bởi Lê Quý Ly bên bờ sông Ngu Giang (Ngu Giang ngày nay là Lạch Trường, một phụ lưu của sông Mã) và Nguyễn Đá Phương ở bến cảng Trần Phú, ở ngay ranh giới Thanh Hóa và Bắc Bộ. Tuy nhiên nguời Champa vẫn làm chủ vùng An Tịnh.


Vào năm 1389, vua Chế Bồng Nga lại tiến hành cuộc chinh phạt mới đầy thắng lợi. Nhưng sau đó quan đại thần Trần Khắc Chân đã cứu nguy Đại Việt bằng trận thắng ở Hai Trieu (Hải Triều, ngày nay là Hưng Yên / Bắc Bộ). Trần Khắc Chân đã đem thủ cấp vua Chế Bồng Nga dâng cho vị vua già Tran Nghe Ton (Trần Nghệ Tôn /1390). Đại Việt đã được cứu thoát bởi cuộc xâm lăng của Champa mà nền độc lập có thể bị tiêu tan (Le Breton : Le royaume d’Annam était sauvé d’une invasion où peut-être son indépendance eût sombré).


Chúng ta nên nhớ rằng người Champa kéo dài được sự thắng lợi suốt cuộc chinh phạt của họ là nhờ ở đội hải quân hùng mạnh.  Thủ lĩnh Champa là La Khai (La Khải) sau khi đã hỏa tán thân xác vua Chế Bồng Nga, đã tập hợp lại quân đội trở về Champa và tự xưng làm vua.  Do thất trận và Champa đã có vị vua mới La Khải nên hai nguời con trai vua Chế Bồng Nga đã xin nhà Trần tỵ nạn ở Đại Việt. Vua Thuận Tôn đã phong con trưởng là Chế Ma Nô phẩm hàm là Hiệu Chánh (Hầu nhất phẩm: prince feudataire de premier rang) và Chế Sơn Nô được phong là Á hầu nhị phẩm (prince feudataire du second rang)

Ngoài ra theo gia phả giòng họ Chế ở An Tịnh là vua Trần Thuận Tôn còn phong cho con vua Chế Bồng Nga làm Tổng trấn biên ải (grand Marquis) và chấp thuận cấp phong ấp Thụ Lũng và Cẩm Trường cho hai quan Hầu mới gốc Champa, tách rời khỏi lãnh thổ của nhà vua vì hai ngài đã có công cùng các tù binh Champa thành lập và xây dựng vùng An Tịnh.


Theo H. Le Breton để hoà đồng và không bị đối xử phân biệt trong xã hội, con cháu các tù binh Champa đã lấy họ Việt như Nguyễn, Trần … nhưng vẫn giữ chữ lót từ họ Chăm như Chế chẳng hạng Nguyễn Chế Mân v.v…  Còn con cháu của vua Chế Bồng Nga vẫn giữ nguyên họ CHẾ vì giòng dõi hoàng tộc Chăm và cũng là con cháu của quan đại thần Việt gốc Chăm nên họ không sợ sự phân biệt và bức hiếp của cư dân Việt.


Qua các cuộc xâm lăng của Trung Quốc sau đó là Đại Việt tiếp theo việc mở rộng trồng trọt và thời gian đã hầu hết hủy hoại những dấu tích và văn minh Champa cổ ở hai vùng Nghệ An và Thanh Hóa.



Họ Chế ở Thụ Lũng (Nghệ An)


Sách tham khảo :

-Le vieux An Tịnh (Hippolyte Le Breton / 1934)

-Tìm về bản sắc văn hoá Việt Nam (Trần Ngọc Thêm)

-Văn hoá Champa (Ngô Văn Doanh)

-Việt Nam Sử Lược (Trần Trọng Kim)

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