Democratic Kampuchea’s Genocide of the Cham


Young girl walks by the community center in Svay Khleang, Cambodia



The Cham are descendants of Champa, a longstanding kingdom that that once occupied most of today’s central Việt Nam—roughly from Quảng Bình to Đồng Nai provinces. Beginning in the late fifteenth century, the Cham fled Vietnamese incursions into northern Champa, finding refuge in southern Champa and in the successive Buddhist kingdoms that emerged after the fall of Angkor. Some Cham territory in Việt Nam remained intact, in gradually eroding parcels, until 1832. The Cham in Cambodia lived in relative peace until the 1970s, when they were targeted by the Khmer Rouge. For five hundred years now, in both Việt Nam and Cambodia, only some Cham have survived the most perilous conditions. However, international attention has never settled upon any Cham community until now, in the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, more casually known as the Khmer Rouge tribunal. In Phnom Penh, the tribunal currently considers whether the well- documented persecutions of the Cham in Cambodia do indeed provide sufficient evidence of the Khmer Rouge’s intent to destroy them, in whole or in part.

To many observers and survivors, there is no doubt that this ethnic and religious minority was targeted with more exacting brutality, with kill rates at double or triple the average population. Some historians claim that the Cham had a higher rate of loss than any other ethnic group. Khmer Rouge documents from that era demand that this distinct group be “broken up” because “their lives are not so difficult.” However, the Khmer Rouge disguised their own genocidal intent in their only official statement on the Cham, when they announced, “The Cham race was exterminated by the Vietnamese.” The Khmer Rouge claim that no Cham had survived the conquest of Champa was certainly convenient, as noted by historian and genocide scholar Ben Kiernan. Because in the Khmer Rouge’s plan for the Cham, “they were to ‘disappear’ as a people,” Kiernan remarked in The Pol Pot Regime. Hence the regime set out to complete the disappearance of their Cham “enemies”—through deportation and extermination, and by forbidding their Islamic worship, their use of Cham language, and their retention of all distinctive cultural practices.

Women prepare food for Friday prayers in O Russei village in Kampong Chhnang


Although all Cambodians suffered terribly during the Khmer Rouge, the killing of one’s own ethnic and religious group cannot be prosecuted under genocide law, which was drafted in the wake of the Jewish Holocaust during World War Two. So for the Khmer Rouge tribunal, the Cham case may provide the most legible evidence of genocide, alongside the persecutions suffered by a smaller minority of ethnic Vietnamese. Four former high-ranking Khmer Rouge cadre have now been individually and collectively indicted for crimes of war, for crimes against humanity, and for genocide against the Cham and the Vietnamese in Cambodia—and these former cadre are currently on trial in Phnom Penh. Genocide was the most recent addition to the expected charges, representing the long-held notion but unproven conviction that the Khmer Rouge committed the crime of crimes. However, we can’t dismiss that genocide also occurred during egregious war crimes against everyone—extermination, murder, enslavement, deportation, imprisonment, torture, rape, disappearance, and other breaches of the Geneva Conventions. We cannot underestimate the brutality of the regime led by Saloth Sar, more commonly known as Pol Pot.

Cham testimonies have long attested to their specific discriminations suffered under Pol Pot, as early as the Renakse Petitions to the United Nations. From 1980 to 1983, Cham claimants added their signatures and thumbprints to what became a 1,250-document petition submitted by 1,166,307 survivors of the Khmer Rouge. Collectively the signatories petitioned to oust the Khmer Rouge from their seat at the UN General Assembly, while requesting that the UN try Pol Pot and other cadre for their fresh crimes. In Koh Kong province in 1983, the survivors recalled these incidents of brutality—

starvation; blindfolding and beating to death; tying legs with rope and dragging; tying up both hands and legs and confining to a crucifix; tying people together and ordering them to walk in lines and shooting them to death from behind and then throwing them into the sea; throwing young children into the sea to drown; hitting young children against trees; and raping women before taking them to be killed.

Despite such horrifying evidence of the widespread inhumanity of the Khmer Rouge regime, these signing survivors were unsuccessful in their request. For various political reasons, the petition failed to move the UN or to remove the Khmer Rouge from Cambodia’s seat in the UN General Assembly. And it would be nearly another thirty years before the very crimes detailed in those early petitions would surface as evidence in court, as they are now. As the Documentation Center of Cambodia attests, “All of these documents offer profound evidence of the crimes committed, including that of genocide, during Democratic Kampuchea.”

Some much-needed rain during a drought, in O Russei village in Kampong Chhnang


The 1980 to 1983 Renakse petitions and documents represent the first time that Cham testimonies of genocidal acts—specifically targeting their ethnic and religious minority—surfaced in a political-legal protest against the Khmer Rouge. According to attorney William J. Schulte, the Cham signatories in Siem Riep “described how the Muslims were forced to eat pork and would be killed if they refused, how their mosques were converted into either animal pens or waste storage facilities, and how Khmer Rouge cadres used pages of the Koran for toilet paper and cigarette paper.” Similarly, Kiernan’s collected interviews from the early 1980s and his analysis of Cham ethnic cleansing detail the “racist repression and forced dispersal of the Chams.” Kiernan evaluates, “In legal terms, this constituted destruction of an ethnic group ‘as such’—genocide.” Since Kiernan also founded the Yale Genocide Project, I’ve wondered if his early Cham research supplemented Yale’s archive, which was eventually absorbed into the Documentation Center of Cambodia. Today, this center provides much evidence to the tribunal. In 2007, this center also assisted 200 Cham religious leaders—tuan, mei tuan, and hakem from 369 mosques across Cambodia—file complaints to the tribunal’s office of co-prosecutors. Numerous other Cham survivors have also filed paperwork through the center’s victim participation unit. Reading some of this evidence, amassed over thirty years, I suspected that a genocide charge would benefit from the range and depth of testimonies provided by the Cham.

Before that very charge was announced in late 2009, I had long anticipated the indictment and possible verdict of Khmer Rouge genocide against the Cham. Then in the wake of the indictment, in spring 2010, I was invited by the director of the Documentation Center of Cambodia, Youk Chhang, to travel to Cambodia to learn more about the forthcoming genocide charge and the Cham response. It was actually a joint invitation for me and my close friend Asiroh Cham, another Cham-American living in California. In June and July, we met with the director, staff, and interns at the Documentation Center of Cambodia—and they offered incredible insight into Cham history and memory in Cambodia, into genocide awareness educational campaigns, and into the devastations wrought by the Khmer Rouge. We also interviewed Andrew Cayley, international co-prosecutor for the tribunal, to discuss the legal contours of the second case and the evidence of Cham genocide. And we visited two Cham villages whose members have filed testimonies for the tribunal, to learn about Cham historical memory and perceptions of justice. On the eve of the announcement of Duch’s verdict, our conversations anticipated the second and most important trial, widely considered the genocide case. And although all Cambodian Cham are Muslim, these two communities also represent differing ways that the Cambodian Cham practice Islam—the unorthodox Cham Jahed and the more orthodox Sunni. No matter the nuances of their worship, however, all Cham were persecuted by the Khmer Rouge, whose leaders intended to wipe out “the Islamic race” in Democratic Kampuchea.

Ceremony evicting unwanted spirits from a house, Cham Jahed community in O Russei


Cham Jahed copy of original kitab (holy book) brought from Champa, dated 1385


Cham Jahed imam, the worship leader of the mosque, in O Russei


Asiroh and I first met with the Imam San, or Cham Jahed, in O Russei village in Kampong Chhnang province. By maintaining the ancient language, script, and culture, the Cham Jahed are widely considered the bearers of Champa customs and traditions. Sometimes referred to as “pure Cham,” this minority of 38,000 still follows older Hinduised Islamic rites, preserved from their 1697 exodus from Champa, after the Vietnamese kingdom of Dang Trong took over the last Cham port. Much of the Cham royalty joined the five thousand refugees who fled to Cambodia. Today, their descendants’ unorthodox form of Islam still features syncretic influences of Hindu cosmology and Sufi tradition, to some extent resembling the Cham Bani in central Việt Nam. The Cham Jahed also honor the spirits of their royal ancestors in Champa, and celebrate old Champa ceremonies alongside modern ones. They chant ancient Cham poetry, they recite Cham language during their once-weekly prayers, and they use original Cham script for their religious literature. From the Cambodian royal family and the government, they receive non-monetary support to preserve Cham history, yet still suffer from deep poverty and a sense of isolation, to some extent. The Cham Jahed fear the loss of their unique culture, due to various domestic and international pressures.

As proud descendants of Champa, the Cham Jahed in O Russei even hold a Cham holy book of literature from the 14th century, a kitab hand-copied through subsequent generations. Written in 1385, it describes an old Cham myth about a centaur. This precious volume even survived underground burial during the village’s destruction by the Khmer Rouge. Cham holy books—not to mention villages—were pursued and destroyed during those years. Somehow the man who had buried the kitab for safekeeping also survived the Khmer Rouge, exhuming the precious document after returning to his razed village. He died in 1989, as an old man, and the kitab got passed onward to a new custodian. We held it with awe. I’ve never heard of any Cham document dating this far back, if even in replica. According to Hindu Cham religious leaders in Việt Nam, many of those early manuscripts were destroyed by enemy armies during incursions into Champa’s capitals. Yet apparently, some of these sacred texts migrated to Cambodia in the late 1600s, with the royal refugees from Champa. Quite miraculously, at least one of those early texts somehow survived the Khmer Rouge’s relentless campaign to wipe out all traces of the Cham.

As I expressed my amazement to the imam and other holy men who’d brought out the book, we discussed through translation how the Cham Jahed had most likely migrated from old Panduranga, the southernmost Cham principality which maintained some degree of sovereignty until 1832. I then shared my 1999 photographs and 2006 video footage of my Cham family in that same region, now called Phan Rang. ”I never thought I would be able to understand Cham people there,” explained Hussein, the school teacher, after listening to my family speak conversationally. “Now if I go to Việt Nam, I can find people to talk with, and I won’t feel lonely.” We smiled at one another. His observation was so full of joyful hope, I didn’t dare tell him how few of us remain in Việt Nam, and that the difficulty might not be in speaking with but in finding the Cham. Instead I told him how excited I was to share these documents of my family village with him, amidst our conversations about the Khmer Rouge. I silently reflected upon the powers of representation and border-crossing, because even within contiguous diasporas, there may be centuries of scarce awareness or nonexistent contact.

The oldest man in Svay Khleang lost children to the Khmer Rouge


In Svay Khleang, survivors recall the Khmer Rouge search and kill program


Minaret built in the 19th century, in Svay Khleang, on the Mekong River


Next Asiroh and I met with the Cham in Svay Khleang, in Krauch Chhmar district, who are among 500,000 Cham adherents to a more orthodox form of Shafi‘i Sunni Islam. Influenced by Arabic and Malaysian practices, most Cham in Cambodia follow this ‘modern’ version of Islam, praying five times a day, with Arabic script for their sacred literature. Today the oldest seun (minaret) extant in Cambodia, built in the late 19th century, still stands on the shore of the Mekong River in Svay Khleang. In its shadow, during the escalation of arrests of the Cham in 1973, the Khmer Rouge had forbidden communal prayer and closed the mosques of this very pious population. Against tradition, the Khmer Rouge had forced Cham women to uncover and cut their hair. They also collected and burned copies of the Qur’an, and made the Cham raise pigs and eat pork. In some villages, to protest, religious elders beat their drums at night. Yet in 1975 after the mass arrest of worshippers during the end of Ramadan—when they’d all sought and received permission to pray—the Cham in Svay Khleang rebelled against these rising religious repressions. However one elderly woman reflected, in 2006, that the villagers would have been exterminated simply for being Cham, regardless the rebellion—it was only a matter of time.

However, to retaliate against this insurrection, the Khmer Rouge systematically killed nearly eighty percent of the villagers in Svay Khleang, and massacred the neighboring Cham village of Koh Phal, who’d resisted eating pork. We learned more about this history from Sos Pinyamin, a key member of the Svay Khleang rebellion in 1975. Today he is the hakem of the village, responsible for education and proper religious observances in the community. He revealed deep wisdom and critical observation about Svay Khleang’s history. We spoke for several hours about the rebellion’s context, and the subsequent losses and repressions in Svay Khleang, including the annihilation of nearly a thousand families. That afternoon, Sos Pinyamin also organized a discussion at the mosque after his afternoon prayers, where numerous community members each told a story about surviving Pol Pot time. Due to the enormity of their losses, their memories were very painful and their reflections profound. One man who’d lost all his family said softly, “Every time I sit down to eat a bowl of rice, I ask, why isn’t my mother eating here with me?” Others echoed his sentiment, nodding and looking down. “Tonight we will have nightmares,” another man confirmed, “even as it is important to get some release, to tell the story, to those to care to listen.”

That evening, I left the village wondering if victim testimonies for the tribunal created a similar effect, the reopening and salting of wounds, no matter the intention. Even as I knew that the guilty verdict—once issued—would honor the the Cham in Cambodia, I wondered if this form of visibility and recognition would truly heal their memories and losses. Granted, to deny the verdict of guilt for these four senior Khmer Rouge leaders would add unimaginable insult to injury, just as Duch’s remarkably paltry verdict has done, for all the people of Cambodia. But can juridical justice, even when fully realized, ever be enough? Because the Svay Khleang man eating his bowls of rice without his mother, wondering why he must go another meal without her, reminds us how no such sentence, reparation, memorial, or campaign could compensate even a fraction for these abruptly ended and deeply shattered lives. The man had gently confessed, “Sometimes I no longer wish to be alive, since everyone else in my family is gone.” For those facing such a rupture in the aftermath of genocide, justice may remain elusive, if only because their losses are incommensurable and irreparable.

Woman in Svay Khleang, during conversation about the village’s history


I find it particularly troubling and heartbreaking that the Cham who sought refuge in Cambodia during the conquest of their kingdom were then targeted for extermination hundreds of years later, in such high proportions, during the Khmer Rouge. For their ethnic and religious peculiarity, between fifty to eighty percent of the Cambodian Cham population perished, with 130 mosques destroyed, in less than four years. Of more than one thousand hajji who’d undertaken the sacred pilgrimage to Mecca, only thirty remained in 1979. The rest were brutally murdered, alongside Cham religious leaders—hung upside down and smothered in buckets of boiling water, for example. The number of Cham killed in the 1970s alone exceeds, by hundreds of thousands, the Cham still alive today beyond Cambodia’s borders, in their original homeland in present-day Việt Nam, and in their small diasporas in the United States, Malaysia, Australia, Hainan Island, France, and other countries. In the eighth and ninth centuries, Champa had an estimated one to two million population. How many would be alive today, had we been allowed to flourish, rather than perish?

The Cham we met in Cambodia resemble, in important ways, my family in Việt Nam. And that’s fitting, as I perceive the deaths of the Cham in Cambodia as the loss of extended family. Although my maternal family is Balamon (Hindu) Cham, I feel connected to all descendants of Champa, regardless of religion or region. Our shared history and culture extend so far into the past. As Austronesian-speaking relatives of the Malays, our seafaring ancestors arrived by ship to mainland Southeast Asia well over two thousand years ago. We established a prosperous kingdom through maritime trade. Champa had the earliest written languages in Southeast Asia, a third-century Sanskrit inscription and a fourth-century Cham inscription. Although our art and architecture were influenced by India, we added stylistic innovations and content unseen in the works of all other Indianized cultures. As a matrilineal people, we honored our mother goddess, Po Nagar, whose temple still stands today in Nha Trang. After the 16th century, many Cham converted to Islam, a religion brought by merchants and missionaries, as Hinduism had come before. Yet Islam was adapted while retaining many Cham beliefs and practices, as demonstrated by the Cham Jahed in Cambodia and the Cham Bani in Việt Nam.

Throughout two thousand years, Cham conceptions of the world have been deeply shaped by our indigenous traditions, our trade relations, and our cultural adaptations. Our approach to spirituality has been rather syncretic, like other kingdoms of mainland and island Southeast Asia. In my family’s region of Phan Rang, the Cham still practice what Rie Nakamura describes as cosmological dualism, which allows us to maintain separate and complementary religious beliefs while perceiving our differences as integral to the whole. As a Hindu Cham dignitary in Việt Nam described to me, in 2006, this dualism is a way of keeping peace between the faiths. In Cambodia, the differing practices of Islam represent another cosmological dualism. Yet no matter how we align ourselves spiritually—as Balamon, Bani, Jahed, Sunni Islam, or something else—we are still sometimes erroneously regarded as extinct since the fifteenth century. I first found that grim description in an elementary school encyclopedia in Texas, in the early 1980s. Afterwards I just couldn’t break the news of our extinction to my mother, whose family back home could barely survive in postwar Việt Nam. And even today, as the Cham communities around the world have scarce knowledge of one another, this geographical and conceptual isolation can obscure not only our mutual struggles but also the deep historical and cultural continuities between the Cham in Việt Nam, in Cambodia, and in the diaspora.

Hussein teaching English class in O Russei village, Kampong Chhnang province


High school student with his mother, O Russei village, Kampong Chhnang province


During a devastating drought, the rain prayer ceremony has special significance this year, in O Russei, Kampong Chhnang


– essay and photographs by Julie Thi Underhill, managing editor of diaCRITICS

Did you like this post? Then please take the time to rate it (above) and share it (below). Ratings for top posts are listed on the sidebar. Sharing (on email, Facebook, etc.) helps spread the word about diaCRITICS. Thanks!





You may also like...

170 Responses

  1. “I was very pleased to search out this internet-site.I wished to thanks to your time for this glorious read!! I definitely enjoying each little bit of it and I have you bookmarked to take a look at new stuff you blog post.”

  2. “Appreciate you sharing, great blog.Really thank you!”

  3. “Yet another issue is video games are usually serious naturally with the primary focus on understanding rather than enjoyment. Although, there is an entertainment element to keep the kids engaged, each and every game will likely be designed to focus on a specific experience or program, such as mathematics or technology. Thanks for your article.”

  4. “I really appreciate this post. I have been looking all over for this! Thank goodness I found it on Bing. You’ve made my day! Thx again!”

  5. “I was really confused, and this answered all my questions.”

  6. bandar togel says:

    “I’m not sure exactly why but this web site is loading extremely slow for me. Is anyone else having this issue or is it a problem on my end? I’ll check back later and see if the problem still exists.”

  7. “magnificent points altogether, you just received a new reader. What could you recommend in regards to your post that you made some days in the past? Any positive?”

  8. thegldshop says:

    “It’s wonderful that you are getting ideas from this piece of writing as well as from our discussion made at this place.”

  9. Yesterday, while I was at work, my sister stole my iPad and tested to see if it can survive a twenty five foot drop, just so she can be a youtube sensation. My iPad is now broken and she has 83 views. I know this is totally off topic but I had to share it with someone!

  10. Very neat post.Much thanks again. Want more.

  11. says:

    “WiС•h buy any unwanted and old bottle Рѕff each of our supermarket shelf.”

  12. “F*ckin? amazing things here. I?m very satisfied to look your post. Thank you a lot and i am having a look ahead to touch you. Will you kindly drop me a mail?”

  13. I truly appreciate this article.Thanks Again. Will read on…

  14. “Great remarkable things here. IВЎВ¦m very glad to peer your post. Thanks a lot and i’m having a look ahead to contact you. Will you kindly drop me a mail?”

  15. Major thanks for the blog article.Thanks Again. Great.

  16. Really enjoyed this blog post. Great.

  17. Like says:

    Like!! Really appreciate you sharing this blog post.Really thank you! Keep writing.

  18. “Great, thanks for sharing this blog post.Thanks Again. Keep writing.”

  19. “It’s a joy to find someone who can think like that”

  20. I went over this site and I think you have a lot of good information, saved to fav 🙂

  21. “Hi! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any issues with hackers? My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing a few months of hard work due to no back up. Do you have any methods to stop hackers?”

  22. Really appreciate you sharing this post. Great.

  23. “Keep up the wonderful work , I read few blog posts on this site and I conceive that your site is rattling interesting and has bands of superb information.”

  24. “Thanks for your post. I would love to say this that the very first thing you will need to do is to see if you really need credit improvement. To do that you simply must get your hands on a replica of your credit score. That should never be difficult, since the government mandates that you are allowed to have one totally free copy of your real credit report yearly. You just have to ask the right people today. You can either look into the website for your Federal Trade Commission or contact one of the main credit agencies directly.”

  25. Fantastic post.Thanks Again. Keep writing.

  26. I think this is a real great blog article.Much thanks again.

  27. I think this is a real great article post.Much thanks again. Really Cool.

  28. A big thank you for your blog post. Will read on…

  29. I really like and appreciate your post.Really looking forward to read more. Really Cool.

  30. I really liked your blog post.Thanks Again. Really Great.

  31. David Caputo says:

    Im thankful for the blog.Really looking forward to read more. Cool.

  32. beauty blog says:

    “Hi! I know this is kinda off topic but I’d figured I’d ask. Would you be interested in exchanging links or maybe guest authoring a blog article or vice-versa? My website goes over a lot of the same topics as yours and I feel we could greatly benefit from each other. If you’re interested feel free to send me an email. I look forward to hearing from you! Excellent blog by the way!”

  33. “Hello! Would you mind if I share your blog with my myspace group? There’s a lot of people that I think would really appreciate your content. Please let me know. Thanks”

  34. beauty info says:

    “Definitely, what a splendid site and illuminating posts, I surely will bookmark your site.Have an awsome day!”

  35. 依戀施 says:


  36. Im grateful for the post. Much obliged.

  37. “I like the helpful info you provide in your articles. I’ll bookmark your blog and check again here frequently. I’m quite sure I’ll learn plenty of new stuff right here! Good luck for the next!”

  38. I truly appreciate this article.Really looking forward to read more. Really Great.

  39. 高能聚焦量超聲波( HIFU )以物理性聚焦集中成一點, 快速穿透皮膚真皮及脂肪層面直達面部表淺肌肉腱膜系統( SMAS )層令其組織細胞分子高速磨擦 , 瞬間升溫至60 -70 度,令整個表淺肌肉腱膜系統( SMAS )受熱收縮,形成熱固化區域, 令結綈組織同時拉緊,達到拉皮防皺及美容效果。SMAZ聚焦超聲波提供了最有效的HIFU能量收緊皮膚及刺激胶原蛋白新生,提升彈性,恢復更緊緻的皮膚和更年輕的美貌。

  40. 奶昔 says:


  41. 全「身」趨勢!LSD真空無痛技術,無需使用冷凍啫喱,比傳統激光脫毛更安全,更舒適,更快捷。腿部背部永久脫毛,只需15分鐘!最快激光脫毛科技 配以22x35mm 及 9x9mm 治療機頭,比其他品牌之24mm為大,覆蓋肌膚範圍更廣。 因而更能縮短療程時間及次數。專為亞洲皮膚而設 因應不同膚色設定不同能量,無論膚色較深或較白均適用 最舒適及最有效的激光脫毛體驗 (與755nm及1064nm作比較) 設真空脫毛技術 LUMENIS LightSheer® Desire 激光脫毛儀備有真空脫毛技術,令激光能量更集中聚焦,達至更快及更有效之療程效果。

  42. weight loss says:

    “Hey there just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The text in your article seem to be running off the screen in Internet explorer. I’m not sure if this is a format issue or something to do with internet browser compatibility but I figured I’d post to let you know. The style and design look great though! Hope you get the problem resolved soon. Many thanks”

  43. supplement says:

    “Thanks again for the article post.Really looking forward to read more. Awesome.”

  44. 粉霜 says:

    最快速的日間上妝步驟。省下三倍的時間: 色彩校正、保濕與防曬一次完成。

  45. 智慧 says:


  46. “I cant wait to read far more from you. This is really a great website.”

  47. “Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I’ve really enjoyed surfing around your blog posts. In any case I will be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write again soon!”

  48. print design says:

    Major thanks for the blog article.Much thanks again. Keep writing.

  49. Fresh Line 【雅典娜】智慧女神抗氧修護爽膚水 Replenish & Antioxidant Clarifying Toner的商品介紹 UrCosme (@cosme TAIWAN) 商品資訊 Fresh Line,雅典娜,智慧女神抗氧修護爽膚水 Replenish & Antioxidant Clarifying Toner

  50. What i do not realize is actually how you’re now not
    really a lot more neatly-favored than you
    might be now. You are so intelligent. You recognize thus
    significantly on the subject of this matter, produced me in my view believe it
    from a lot of various angles. Its like men and women are
    not interested until it is something to do with Girl gaga!

    Your individual stuffs outstanding. At all times handle it up!

  51. Emerson says:

    Im thankful for the blog.

  52. “I am regular reader, how are you everybody? This paragraph posted at this website is really good.”

  53. 123movies says:

    Great, thanks for sharing this blog.Really thank you! Really Cool.

  54. “Thanks again for the blog article.Really looking forward to read more. Will read on…”

  55. I’m not that much of a internet reader to be honest but your sites really nice, keep it up! I’ll go ahead and bookmark your website to come back later on. Cheers

  56. Very good write-up. I definitely love this site.
    Continue the good work!

  57. Hello, its nice post about media print, we all be
    aware of media is a enormous source of data.

  58. It’s in point of fact a great and useful piece of info.
    I am happy that you just shared this helpful info with us.
    Please stay us informed like this. Thanks for sharing.

  59. Hey there terrific blog! Does running a blog such as this require a massive amount work?
    I’ve absolutely no knowledge of computer programming
    however I had been hoping to start my own blog in the near future.
    Anyway, should you have any recommendations or tips for new blog owners please share.
    I understand this is off subject nevertheless I just needed to ask.
    Thanks a lot!

  60. After I originally left a comment I seem to have clicked
    on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now whenever a comment is
    added I get four emails with the same comment. Is there a way you are able to remove me from that
    service? Kudos!

  61. Way cool! Some very valid points! I appreciate you writing this
    post and the rest of the site is also very good.

  62. Hello there! Do you use Twitter? I’d like to follow you
    if that would be okay. I’m definitely enjoying your
    blog and look forward to new updates.

  63. I am not sure where you are getting your info, but good topic.
    I needs to spend some time learning more or understanding
    more. Thanks for excellent info I was looking for
    this information for my mission.

  64. wonderful points altogether, you simply gained a new reader.
    What could you recommend about your submit that you just made some days
    in the past? Any sure?

  65. NarcosXXX says:

    It’s going to be ending of mine day, however before ending
    I am reading this enormous piece of writing to improve my know-how.

  66. Great article, totally what I wanted to find.

  67. I’ve read a few excellent stuff here. Certainly price bookmarking for revisiting.
    I wonder how much attempt you set to make the sort of great informative web site.

  68. I am curious to find out what blog platform you are working with? I’m having some minor security problems with my latest site and I would like to find something more safeguarded. Do you have any recommendations?

  69. You have observed very interesting details! ps decent internet site. 🙂

  70. Does your blog have a contact page? I’m having a tough
    time locating it but, I’d like to shoot you an e-mail.
    I’ve got some ideas for your blog you might be interested in hearing.
    Either way, great blog and I look forward to seeing it improve over

  71. Very quickly this website will be famous among all blog users, due to it’s
    pleasant posts

  72. Thanks for ones marvelous posting! I really enjoyed reading it, you could be a great author.I will be sure to bookmark your blog and will come back someday.
    I want to encourage continue your great posts, have a nice weekend!

  73. Hi, i think that i saw you visited my blog thus i came
    to “return the favor”.I am trying to find things
    to enhance my website!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

  74. What’s Happening i am new to this, I stumbled upon this I have found
    It absolutely helpful and it has helped me out loads.
    I’m hoping to contribute & assist different customers like its helped me.
    Great job.

  75. I’m not that much of a internet reader to be honest but your sites really nice, keep it up!
    I’ll go ahead and bookmark your website to come back down the road.

    All the best

  76. I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did
    you create this website yourself or did you hire
    someone to do it for you? Plz answer back as I’m looking to
    create my own blog and would like to know where u got this from.


  77. nettikasinot says:

    Hey there, You have done a great job. I will definitely digg it
    and personally recommend to my friends. I am confident they’ll be benefited
    from this website.

  78. How do I know if my blogs are being seen by others?

  79. I do trust all of the ideas you have introduced on your post.
    They’re very convincing and will certainly work. Still, the posts are very
    quick for starters. May you please extend them a little
    from next time? Thanks for the post.

  80. I’ve been browsing online more than 2 hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours.

    It’s pretty worth enough for me. Personally, if all web owners and bloggers made good
    content as you did, the net will be much more useful than ever before.

  81. What’s up everyone, it’s my first pay a quick visit
    at this web site, and paragraph is truly fruitful in favor
    of me, keep up posting these types of articles.

  82. Just desire to say your article is as surprising. The clearness in your post is simply spectacular and i can assume you’re an expert on this subject. Fine with your permission let me to grab your RSS feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please keep up the rewarding work.

  83. Pretty! This was an extremely wonderful post. Thanks
    for providing this information.

  84. It’s amazing in support of me to have a website, which is useful designed for my
    knowledge. thanks admin

  85. If you desire to improve your experience only keep visiting this site and be
    updated with the most recent gossip posted here.

  86. Way cool! Some extremely valid points! I appreciate you penning this article
    and also the rest of the website is also very good.

  87. If you would like to grow your know-how simply keep visiting this web site and be updated with the most up-to-date gossip posted here.

  88. I really like reading through a post that can make people think.
    Also, thanks for permitting me to comment!

  89. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as though you relied on the video to
    make your point. You obviously know what youre
    talking about, why throw away your intelligence on just posting videos to your blog when you could be giving
    us something informative to read?

  90. If some one needs to be updated with most recent technologies afterward he must be pay a visit this web page and be up to date everyday.

  91. I blog frequently and I seriously appreciate your content. This great article has truly peaked my interest.

    I will book mark your site and keep checking for new
    information about once a week. I opted in for your Feed
    as well.

  92. Hello there! This post could not be written any better!
    Reading this post reminds me of my good old room mate!
    He always kept talking about this. I will forward this post to him.
    Fairly certain he will have a good read. Thanks for sharing!

  93. We are a gaggle of volunteers and starting a brand new scheme in our community.

    Your site offered us with helpful info to work
    on. You’ve performed a formidable job and our entire community might be thankful to you.

  94. Hello, i think that i saw you visited my weblog so i came to “return the favor”.I’m attempting to find things to improve my web site!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  95. Woah! I’m really loving the template/theme of this website.

    It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s hard to get that “perfect balance” between usability and visual
    appearance. I must say you have done a superb job with this.
    Additionally, the blog loads extremely fast for me on Internet explorer.

    Outstanding Blog!

  96. Hi there, I discovered your website by way of Google whilst searching
    for a comparable topic, your website got here up, it appears great.
    I’ve bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.
    Hello there, just became alert to your weblog through Google, and found that it
    is truly informative. I’m gonna watch out for brussels.
    I’ll appreciate for those who proceed this in future.

    Numerous other people might be benefited out of your writing.


  97. nettikasinot says:

    Hi just wanted to give you a quick heads up and let you know a few of the images aren’t loading correctly.
    I’m not sure why but I think its a linking issue.
    I’ve tried it in two different internet browsers and both show the same results.

  98. Way cool! Some very valid points! I appreciate you writing this write-up and the rest
    of the website is also very good.

  99. Say, you got a nice article.Really looking forward to read more. Really Cool.

  100. How hard is it to write a wordpress theme to fit into an existing site?

  101. Do you mind if I quote a couple of your posts as long as I provide credit and sources back to your blog? My website is in the very same area of interest as yours and my users would certainly benefit from some of the information you present here. Please let me know if this ok with you. Thanks a lot!

  102. Hmm it appears like your blog ate my first comment (it was super long) so I guess I’ll just sum it up what I submitted and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog. I too am an aspiring blog writer but I’m still new to the whole thing. Do you have any helpful hints for newbie blog writers? I’d certainly appreciate it.

  103. Howdy! This is my first visit to your blog! We are a collection of volunteers and starting
    a new initiative in a community in the same niche.
    Your blog provided us valuable information to work on. You have done a marvellous job!

  104. Hi! Do you know if they make any plugins to safeguard against hackers?
    I’m kinda paranoid about losing everything I’ve worked hard
    on. Any suggestions?

  105. I every time spent my half an hour to read this web site’s posts every
    day along with a mug of coffee.

  106. Thanks on your marvelous posting! I really enjoyed reading it, you are a great author.
    I will remember to bookmark your blog and will often come back in the foreseeable future.

    I want to encourage continue your great writing, have
    a nice morning!

  107. I enjoy what you guys are usually up too. This kind of clever work and exposure!
    Keep up the amazing works guys I’ve incorporated you guys to my blogroll.

  108. Do you have a spam issue on this site; I also am a blogger,
    and I was wanting to know your situation; we have created some nice procedures and we are looking to trade strategies with
    others, why not shoot me an email if interested.

  109. Excellent way of explaining, and pleasant paragraph to take
    facts about my presentation topic, which i am going to present in college.

  110. If you are going for best contents like myself, just go to see this web site daily as
    it provides quality contents, thanks

  111. Hello, constantly i used to check webpage posts here early in the break of day, since i
    love to find out more and more.

  112. Have you ever considered creating an ebook or guest authoring on other websites?
    I have a blog based upon on the same information you discuss and would love
    to have you share some stories/information. I know my viewers would enjoy your work.
    If you are even remotely interested, feel free to shoot me an e mail.

  113. Currently it looks like Expression Engine is the best
    blogging platform out there right now. (from what I’ve read) Is that what you’re using on your blog?

  114. Somebody necessarily lend a hand to make critically articles
    I’d state. That is the first time I frequented your website page
    and thus far? I amazed with the analysis you made to make this actual put up extraordinary.
    Magnificent job!

  115. I was wondering iff you ever thought of changing the layout of your website?

    Its very well written; I love what youve got to say.
    But mahbe you could a little more in the way of content so people could connect with it better.
    Youve got an awful lot of text for only having 1 or twoo images.
    Maybe you coukd space it out better?

  116. I love how your website looks, thanks for the post it was nice read.

  117. Mission accomplished. It’s sleek, friend.

  118. promote blog says:

    Really appreciate you sharing this blog article. Cool.

  119. I’m really impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself? Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it is rare to see a great blog like this one today..

  120. I found your weblog web site on google and test a few of your early posts. Continue to maintain up the excellent operate. I simply further up your RSS feed to my MSN News Reader. Looking for forward to reading more from you in a while!…

  121. Undeniably imagine that which you stated. Your favourite reason appeared to
    be on the internet the easiest thing to be aware of.
    I say to you, I definitely get irked while other folks consider issues that they just do not recognise about.
    You controlled to hit the nail upon the top and also defined out
    the entire thing with no need side effect ,
    folks can take a signal. Will probably be back to get more.
    Thank you

  122. goodgame says:

    Gamers! Use this huge list of PC games free download links to find the best free PC games to download full versions ready to install and play.(September 2018)

  123. This is one awesome blog article.Much thanks again. Really Cool.

  124. tca peel says:

    Great article, it was nice read. Please keep them posts comming.

  125. I was just seeking this info for some time. After six hours of continuous Googleing, at last I got it in your web site. I wonder what is the lack of Google strategy that don’t rank this type of informative websites in top of the list. Normally the top websites are full of garbage.

  126. If you insure your car or home with Admiral you’ll find your policy booklets here. Log in now to view your documents.

  127. How do you delete media files with apostrophes from Joomla?

  128. Mission accomplished. It’s sleek, friend.

  129. tca peel says:

    I love how your website looks, thanks for the post it was nice read.

  130. Troy Evens says:

    halloween posters to distillery advertisement – Chalkboards make it all more interesting, more believable and (why not) cooler. But hiring a chaklboard designer is expensive.

  131. I’ve figured out how I wanted my blog layout and everything, it’s just that other blogs that I’ve visited that use Blogspot have nice big headers. Mine is just text, so can someone enlighten me on how to make a pretty header?.

  132. Thank you for the sensible critique. Me & my neighbor were just preparing to do some research about this. We got a grab a book from our local library but I think I learned more from this post. I am very glad to see such magnificent info being shared freely out there.

  133. Sami Quinn says:

    Assume that you are working as a computer technician for a company with a large network. You are assigned to determine what is wrong with an employee?s computer and repair it. You suspect that the computer is not properly connected to the network. Describe the troubleshooting steps you would take to test your theory that the computer is not physically or logically connected to the network, and describe how you would resolve the resolve the various reasons for the computer not connecting to the network..

  134. Wow, marvelous blog layout! How long have you been blogging for? you made blogging look easy. The overall look of your web site is great, as well as the content!

  135. Vinny Leech says:

    Where online can an accredited psyciatrist post articles (or blogs) for them to become popular?

  136. I love it when folks get together and share thoughts.
    Great site, stick with it!

  137. Thanks for the auspicious writeup. It if truth
    be told was a entertainment account it. Look complicated to far delivered agreeable from you!
    By the way, how can we keep in touch?

  138. Hi to every single one, it’s truly a good for me to go to see this site, it includes helpful Information.

  139. Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering
    if you knew of any widgets I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates.
    I’ve been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time and was hoping
    maybe you would have some experience with something like
    this. Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly
    enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.

  140. destroyers says:

    Woah! I’m really loving the template/theme of
    this website. It’s simple, yet effective.

    A lot of times it’s hard to get that “perfect balance” between superb usability and appearance.
    I must say that you’ve done a fantastic job with this.
    In addition, the blog loads very quick for me on Safari.
    Superb Blog!

  141. Everyone loves what you guys are up too. This sort of clever
    work and reporting! Keep up the amazing works guys I’ve incorporated you guys to my own blogroll.

  142. throw says:

    Good post. I learn something new and challenging on sites I stumbleupon everyday.
    It will always be helpful to read through articles from other writers and practice something from other sites.

  143. Spot on with this write-up, I really assume this website wants far more consideration. I’ll in all probability be once more to read way more, thanks for that info.

  144. attach says:

    This info is priceless. When can I find out more?

  145. These are actually great ideas in on the topic of blogging.
    You have touched some good things here. Any way keep up wrinting.

  146. Are you looking to see and talk to some really sexy
    girls? These girls are super dirty and it doesn’t
    cost a single cent to talk to them. It’s wall to wall babes
    at this site. Just visit,2778,2777,2776,3391 and sign up for your free account.
    You’ll be talking to these total babes in a matter of no time

  147. schoolroom says:

    Yes! Finally someone writes about motherfucking.

  148. Hi there, You’ve done a great job. I will definitely
    digg it and personally suggest to my friends. I am sure they will
    be benefited from this website.

  149. This post will help the internet people for building up new website
    or even a blog from start to end.

  150. It’s amazing to go to see this web site and reading the views
    of all colleagues on the topic of this article, while I am also eager of getting experience.

  151. Hi there very nice site!! Guyy .. Excellent ..
    Amazing .. I’ll bookmark your website and take the feeds also?
    I am satisfied to search out so many useful info right here
    iin the post, we need work out more strategies in this regard, thank
    you for sharing. . . . . .

  152. Because in my experience, the old adage about things that sound too good to be true, usually IS true! There is very little in life that is free…and comes without a catch, and unfortunately for many unsuspecting people looking for complimentary clairvoyant advice, they learn the hard way this is especially true online.

  153. I have a video post in blogger then how can I put a repost link to that? I have already go to addthis but don’t know how to put the code in its proper place wherein the individual posts are being place with an embed this or repost this or share this. Please help..

  154. This post will assist the internet users for building up new website or
    even a blog from start to end.

  155. Scientists are forever telling us that there is no God, no purpose to life and that everything is just random chaos. Should we all just sit back and let them rip apart and glibly dismiss everything that millions hold in their hearts as true and of great value?

  156. Corabella says: Cheap Price Dot US Store >> Online shopping from the earth’s biggest selection of books, magazines, music, DVDs, videos, electronics, computers, software, apparel & accessories, shoes, jewelry, tools & hardware, housewares, furniture, sporting goods, beauty & personal care, broadband & dsl, gourmet food & just about anything else.

  157. This is really intеresting, Yoᥙ’re ɑ verfy
    skilled blogger. I’ѵe joined yⲟur feed and lok forward
    tto seeking m᧐re off yoսr excellent post. Also, Ӏ havе shared your website in my social networks!

  158. Melony Cuffe says:

    Disgusting dirty horror assets for download –

  159. Ava says: Cheap Price Dot US Store >> Online shopping from the earth’s biggest selection of books, magazines, music, DVDs, videos, electronics, computers, software, apparel & accessories, shoes, jewelry, tools & hardware, housewares, furniture, sporting goods, beauty & personal care, broadband & dsl, gourmet food & just about anything else.

  160. Download Call of Duty: Infinite Warfare | RG Mechanics Games | Free Download FULL Version PC game Torrent RG Mechanics | Free Download full pc game

  161. thank you for sharing.

  162. Watch Free Hd Pon Hot Porn Hd Pon Videos and Download it.Watch Free Hd Pon Video Hot Porn Hd Pon Video Videos and Download it.

  163. If you’re unsure if your car is insured or not, get your vehicle registration number and check it against the details held by the Motor Insurer’s Bureau (MIB); You

  164. dmca says:

    Say, you got a nice blog post. Will read on…

  1. October 13, 2018

    …One of a kind Chalkboard Resources library

    […]Have you ever wanted to be able to design any chalkboard you can imagine in just a few minutes? Now you can do all that and more. Download the awesome Chalkboard Megabundle Library here: […]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.