Độc đáo ở thánh đường người Chăm Hồi giáo

Thứ sáu, ngày 2 tháng 5 (lịch Chăm, tức ngày 21/8/2009) là ngày đầu tiên các tu sĩ của người Chăm theo đạo Hồi ở Bình Thuận bước vào thánh đường để ăn chay và đọc kinh Koran theo giáo luật.

 

Từ kiến trúc độc đáo

Thánh đường của người Chăm còn gọi theo tiếng Chăm là “thang Mugik” hay nhiều người dân địa phương còn quen gọi là chùa. Thánh đường bao giờ cũng nằm ở một khu đất trống giữa làng. Nó là sản phẩm trí tuệ không chỉ của các vị chức sắc trong làng, mà còn là tinh thần ý nguyện và sự đóng góp của cả Plây Chăm (làng Chăm). Ngoài những nét bắt buộc chung của người Hồi giáo như các họa tiết hoa văn, màu sắc phải tuân thủ, thì các thánh đường của người Chăm có những nét rất riêng, theo phong tục và truyền thống của nền văn minh lúa nước. Nhìn từ ngoài vào, các thánh đường bao giờ cũng có cổng quay về hướng Nam. Cổng thánh đường không bao giờ đi thẳng như các cổng làng ở nền văn minh sông Hồng, cũng không giống như các cổng làng của người Chăm ở các tỉnh An Giang, người Khơ-me ở Sóc trăng. Để khi đi vào người ta phải đi vòng sang trái rồi sau đó mới vào được Thánh đường. Đây là một nét đặc biệt mà rất ít người hiểu rằng nó bắt nguồn từ bối cảnh kiến trúc chung của người Chăm cổ. Điều đó cũng dễ hiểu bởi Hồi giáo vốn chỉ du nhập vào xã hội Chăm từ thế kỉ XVII thông qua con đường giao thương của người phương Tây. Ngay sau khi bước vào thánh đường, ta nhìn thấy  phía bên phải có một cái hồ chứa nước rất lớn. Đây là hồ chứa nước để các tu sĩ sử dụng trong suốt tháng ăn chay Ramưwan. Thánh đường của người chăm Hồi giáo thường được xây không cao lắm nhưng rất kiên cố. Chất liệu chính được làm bằng gạch, ngói và dùng nhiều cột bằng gỗ chứ không xây trụ xi măng như nhà của người Kinh trong vùng. Hai bên hông thánh đường là hai hành lang rộng, có nhiều cửa sổ được làm bằng gỗ hoặc bằng sắt. Thánh đường Hồi giáo Chăm được trang trí rất đơn giản, không cầu kì nhưng luôn cao ráo và mát mẻ. Mặt chính của thánh đường là bàn lễ được làm bằng kính có hoa văn. Phía trong, chính là quyển kinh Thánh Koran. Trong thánh đường chỉ có duy nhất một cái giường dành riêng cho vị sư cả đặt ở phía trái, một cái trống to phía dưới góc phải thánh đường và một ít đồ dùng khác chuyên dụng trong tháng ăn chay. Bên trong thánh đường có hai hàng cột to nằm giữa được sơn bóng loáng.

 Đến nghi lễ trong thánh đường

Bình thường, nếu không phải là tháng ăn chay thì thánh đường rất ít người lui tới ngoài những người có trách nhiệm được sư cả phân công. Thánh đường chỉ “hoạt động”  khi có  các nghi lễ như  nhập đạo, thăng chức… Đặc biệt, thánh đường sẽ được hoạt động hết công suất khi tháng ăn chay Ramưwan về, bắt đầu từ ngày 1 tháng 5 theo lịch Hồi giáo. Đây là thời gian mà hàng trăm tín đồ  trong Plây Chăm vào thánh đường để thực thi nghĩa vụ  giáo luật là “ép xác” ăn chay. Theo phong tục của người Chăm Hồi giáo thì vào chùa để ăn chay không đơn thuần chỉ là nghi thức của giáo luật mà nó còn thể hiện tính giáo dục đạo đức, răn đe cho mỗi con người. Thực thi giáo luật nghiêm túc có nghĩa là đã thấu hiểu và chia sẻ được những gian truân khổ cực của người nghèo. Chính vì lẽ đó, trong tháng ăn chay nhà nhà đều chăm chú hướng về nơi thánh đường linh thiêng. Ở đó có người thân của họ đang cầu kinh Thánh Koran . Cứ sau mỗi bài kinh thánh là lại có một hồi trống vang lên. Các tu sĩ lại được phép nghỉ ngơi và ăn uống những thức ăn do chính người thân trong gia đình mình mang đến. Chính những dịp này, các bà các chị phụ nữ lại có dịp được đến thánh đường để dâng nghi lễ, không chỉ để tỏ lòng biết ơn đấng tối cao mà còn là để phục vụ cho các tu sĩ sau những nghi lễ khắt khe của giáo luật. Trong tháng ăn chay Ramưwan chỉ có đêm thứ mười và đêm thứ mười lăm là đông vui nhất và cũng là quan trọng nhất với không chỉ các tu sĩ, mà còn với cả người thân trong gia đình họ. Đêm thứ mười là đêm đọc kinh để bày tỏ lòng thành kính và biết ơn tổ tiên, ông bà mình. Vì vậy,  có rất nhiều các chị, các bà được phép đến thánh đường để chứng kiến các nghi thức và cũng là để được chắp tay cầu nguyện tổ tiên ông bà. Ngay từ chiều tối hôm đó, các mâm cỗ đã được chị em phụ nữ đội  lên  xếp thành hàng phía bên trong thánh đường. Nghi lễ tôn giáo được diễn ra rất uy nghiêm và trang trọng dưới sự chỉ đạo của vị sư cả trụ trì. Bên ngoài thánh đường, tiếng trẻ thơ vẫn cười đùa vui vẻ. Chúng không hề biết phía trong, cha ông  đang thực hiện những khát khao nguyện cầu cho quốc thái dân an, cho mưa thuận gió hòa. Bởi lẽ thực hiện nghi lễ trong thánh đường là chỉ dành riêng cho những người tu sĩ. Trong suốt tháng ăn chay Ramưwan, Plây Chăm không hề được diễn ra bất cứ điều gì gây mất trật tự thôn xóm. Điều này không chỉ là giáo luật mà còn được chính người dân Plây Chăm tôn kính và tuân thủ rất nghiêm túc.  

Quốc Hanh
(Theo Bình Thuận)

Theo Binhthuantoday.com

 

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